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HOME   > CEMENT

Energy Source for Cement Kilns: KIS

KISPL meets coal quality specification for Cement Production

JANUARY 10, 2008, NEW DELHI The two basic processes in cement production are the wet and dry processes which are named after the manner in which the raw mix is introduced into the kiln. In the wet process the mix is introduced into the kiln as a slurry with 20-40% moisture. The mix is introduced dry into the kiln in the dry process. Dry process kilns are generally shorter because there is no need to evaporate the slurry moisture from the mix. Reduction of moisture content improves plant fuel efficiencies.

Cement production is very energy intensive involving both heat (clinker production) and electricity (grinding of feed and clinker). The most modern plants in operation today which use the dry process and have pre-calcination and pre-heaters consume around 80 kwh of electricity per tonne of clinker and 600 kcals of heat for each kg of clinker produced. Less modern dry process plants use up to 1100 kcals of heat/kg of clinker and older wet process plants can use up to 1700 kcals/kg of clinker produced.

Approximate coal consumption in cement plants

Type of plant

HEAT REQUIRED KCAL/KG CLINKER

TONNES CLINKER PER TONE COAL*

TONNES COAL* PER 106 TONNES CLINKER

Most modern—dry process, pre-heating

600

10.0

100,000

Less Modern—dry process—semi dry process

1100

5.5

180,000

Least modern-wet process

1700

3.5

280,000

*Calorific value = 6000 kcal/kg net as received basis.


Coal quality requirements

There are few limitations on coal quality for cement production, some are as follows:

PARAMETER

LIMITS

COMMENTS

Total Moisture

Max. 15% (ar)

Creates handling problems if too high

Ash

Max. 25% (ad)

Generally little influence composition must suit kiln feed composition.

Volatile Matter

Virtually no limit (ad)

Best quality coking coals 20-35%. High volatile matter results in lower coke yield.

Calorific value

Various

Depends on grinding capacity and throughput

Sulphur

Max. 2% (ad)

Dry process. Limit less severe for wet process

Chlorine

Max. 0.1% (ad)

Dry process. Limit less severe for wet process.

Hardgrove grindability index

Various

Limit set by capacity of grinding equipment and CV of coal used.

Maximum size

Max. 30-50mm

Depending on grinding equipment.

Fines content (- 3mm)

Max. 25-30%

Creates handling problems if too high.

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=coal that includes TOTAL MOISTURE, ASH, VOLATILE MATTER, and FIXED CARBON

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