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Know the Annual Coal Consumption of your Power Plant...

Capacity of
Power Plant

Station Heat
Rate

Specific Heat
of Coal

Plant Load
Factor

Annual Coal Consumption

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From mine to plant, KISPL delivers peace of mind.....

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Coal policy in India

Understand India's coal and import policy framework through these articles

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Coal Solutions for Power Sector

KISPL provides superior grade low ash coal, 24% or less ash content

Efficiency Table of Coal Fired Power Station*

Power Units

Efficiencies %

Sub-Critical Steam Conditions

Built over the last forty years

36-40%

Super-Critical Units

Modern

40-44%

Ultra-Super-Critical Units

Under construction

46%
50% (with further material advances)

* The efficiencies apply to power stations of units larger than 350 MW. Older and smaller units will have lower efficiencies

Coal Quality Requirements and Specifications*

1.Stoker Stoker is a type of coal firing in boiler. A stoker is also a device consisting of a feed and a grate and is used for feeding coal (or other solid fuel) into a furnace, distributing it over a grate, admitting air to the coal for combustion and providing a means for discharge of ash.

PARAMETER

LIMITS

COMMENTS

Total Moisture

8 - 15% (AR)

If too low, fines can be blown away from the bed without burning.

Ash

7 – 30% (ad)
3 – 35% (ad)

For overfeed stoker.
For spreader stoker.
Minimum ash content required so grate will be protected from reflected heat.

Volatile Matter

25 – 40% (daf)

 

Maximum size

30 mm

 

Size consist

Max. 30% - 3mm
Min. 25% +6mm

If too high can be blown from bed.

Ash fusion temperature

IDT min. 1200°C.

Ash melts and clinkers if too low.

Crucible swelling number

Max. 3

High swelling coals give uneven combustion.


2.Pulverised coal (known as pf, pulverised fuel) firing is combustion of powdered coal suspended as a cloud of small particles in the combustion air. It avoids the need for a supporting grate and therefore eliminates restrictions on equipment size, and the reason for its wide scale adaptation is its suitability in very large boilers. Substantially more heat is released per unit volume than in stoker firing. Because the coal is carried by the combustion air, residence times are much shorter than for stokers; just a few seconds. Despite the short residence time, good burnout can be achieved as long as the coal is sufficiently finely divided.

* Whilstcoals outside the following ranges can be burned and following specifications should normally be adhered to:

PARAMETER

LIMITS

COMMENTS

Total Moisture

15% (ar)

Reduces net calorific value. Creates handling problems if too high. Limits higher for lignites and low rank coals.

Ash

Max. 20% (ad)

Reduces calorific value. Generally should be low.

Volatile Matter

Min. 20 – 25% (daf)

For conventional pf burners.

 

Max.20-25% (daf)

For down fired pf burners.

Calorific value

As high as possible

With suitable equipment almost any calorific value fuel can be utilised.

Sulphur

Generally Max. 1% (ad)

Can be higher if blending or FGD is employed. Overall is dependent on local emission regulations.

Nitrogen

Max. 1.5-2.0% (daf)

Various limits apply in a few countries only because of nox emissions.

Chlorine

Max. 0.2-0.3% (ad)

Figure normally for inland coals. In general export coals well below 0.05%.

Hardgrove grindability index

Min. 45 – 50

Lower HGI values require larger grinding capacity and more energy.

Maximum size

Max. 40 – 50 mm

Dependent on capacity of grinding equipment.

Fines content (- 3mm)

 

High fines content can increase moisture content and create handling problems.

Ash fusion temperatures

Various

Dry bottom boiler - IDT greater than 1200°C. Wet bottom boiler - flow temperature less than 1300°C.

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Coal Basics

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As received basis

=coal that includes TOTAL MOISTURE, ASH, VOLATILE MATTER, and FIXED CARBON

Coal Conversions for Traders

convert coal enrgy from the given basis to desired basis

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Word of the Day

Wet bottom boiler A boiler from which ash removal is by molten slag from the bottom of the combustion chamber. A suitable coal should thus have an ash fusion flow temperature maximum of 1 300C.

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